Writing a Bibliography: APA Format-standard formats and examples
Listed here are standard formats and examples for basic information that is bibliographic by the American Psychological Association (APA). For more information on the APA format, see http://www.apastyle.org.
Your list of works cited must start at the conclusion of the paper on a new page with the centered title, References. Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author’s last name, utilizing the letter-by-letter system (ignore spaces and other punctuation.) Just the initials of this first and names that are middle given. In the event that author’s name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An, or The.
For dates, spell out the names of months within the text of the paper, but abbreviate them when you look at the range of works cited, with the exception of May, June, and July. Use either the day-month-year style (22 July 1999) or the month-day-year style (July 22, 1999) and be consistent. Because of the style that is month-day-year make sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there.
Underlining or Italics?
When reports were written on typewriters, the true names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had not a way to print italics. You should still underline the names of publications if you write a bibliography by hand. But, by using some type of computer, then publication names must certanly be in italics since they are below. Always check along with your instructor regarding their preference of employing italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
All APA citations should use hanging indents, this is certainly, the first type of an entry must be left that is flush as well as the second and subsequent lines ought to be indented 1/2″.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation
The APA guidelines specify using sentence-style capitalization for the titles of books or articles, therefore you should capitalize just the first word of a title and subtitle. The exceptions to the rule could be titles that are periodical proper names in a title which should still be capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is also italicized.
If there is more than one author, use an ampersand (&) before the name associated with author that is last. If there are many more than six authors, list only the first one and use et al. for the others.
Place the date of publication in parentheses immediately after the true name regarding the author. Place a period of time after the closing parenthesis. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works within longer works.
Allen, T. (1974). Vanishing wildlife of The United States. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.
Boorstin, D. (1992). The creators: a reputation for the heroes associated with the customwritings discounts imagination. New York: Random House.
Nicol, A. M., & Pexman, P. M. (1999). Presenting your findings: a guide that is practical creating tables. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Searles, B., & Last, M. (1979). A reader’s guide to science fiction. New York: Facts on File, Inc.
Toomer, J. (1988). Cane. Ed. Darwin T. Turner. New York: Norton.
Encyclopedia & Dictionary
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In the newest encyclopedia britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Pettingill, O. S., Jr. (1980). Falcon and Falconry. World book encyclopedia. (pp. 150-155). Chicago: World Book.
Tobias, R. (1991). Thurber, James. Encyclopedia americana. (p. 600). New York: Scholastic Library Publishing.
Magazine & Newspaper Articles
Format: Author’s last name, first initial. (Publication date). Article title. Periodical title, volume number(issue number if available), inclusive pages.
Note: usually do not enclose the title in quotation marks. Put a period of time after the title. If a periodical includes a volume number, italicize it and then supply the page range (in regular type) without “pp.” If the periodical does not use volume numbers, such as newspapers, use p. or pp. for page numbers. Note: Unlike other periodicals, p. or pp. precedes page numbers for a newspaper reference in APA style.
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, 9) april. Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Kalette, D. (1986, 21) july. California town counts town to quake that is big. USA Today, 9, p. A1.
Kanfer, S. (1986, July 21). Heard any good books lately? Time, 113, 71-72.
Trillin, C. (1993, 15) february. Culture shopping. New Yorker, pp. 48-51.
Website or Webpage
Online document: Author’s name. (Date of publication). Title of work. Retrieved day, year, from full URL month
Note: When citing Internet sources, make reference to the specific website document. If a document is undated, use “n.d.” (for no date) right after the document title. Break a lengthy URL that would go to another line after a slash or before a period. Continually look at your references to online documents. There is absolutely no period following a URL. Note: if you fail to find several of this given information, cite what is available.
Devitt, T. (2001, 2) august. Lightning injures four at music festival. The Why? Files. Retrieved January 23, 2002, from http://whyfiles.org/137lightning/index.html
Dove, R. (1998). Lady freedom in our midst. The Electronic Text Center. Retrieved 19, 1998, from Alderman Library, University of Virginia website: http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/subjects/afam.html june
Note: If a document is contained within a large and website that is complexsuch as for instance that for a university or a government agency), identify the host organization in addition to relevant program or department before giving the URL for the document itself. Precede the URL with a colon.